Future Progressive ~Verb Form

This post will show you how to form the Future Progressive, also called the Future Continuous. To see how to use the Future Progressive, click here.

Subject Will Be Verb + ing
I will be working all day tomorrow.
You will be living in Dublin next month!
He/she/it will be studying hard all week.
We will be doing a lot of research tomorrow.
They/you (plural) will be traveling to all seven continents over the next two years.

Negative

Subject Won’t Be Verb + ing
I won’t be traveling to France next year.
You won’t be laughing if that happens!
He/she/it won’t be doing anything all day tomorrow.
We won’t be presenting to the board next month.
They/you (plural) won’t be advertising in India next quarter.

Yes/No Questions

Will Subject Be Verb + ing
Will I be walking all day on the hike?
Will you be traveling in Argentina next month?
Will he/she/it be snowing all week?
Will we be spending too much money if we buy that TV?
Will they/you (plural) be playing that movie that we want to see?

Short Answers

Yes, Subject + Will + (Be)
Yes, I will (be).
Yes, you will (be).
Yes, he/she/it will (be).
Yes, we will (be).
Yes, they/you (plural) will (be).

Short Answers

No Subject + Won’t (+be)
No, I won’t (be)
No, you won’t (be)
No, he/she/it won’t (be)
No, we won’t (be)
No, they/you (plural) won’t (be)

Information Questions

Wh- Word Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Who has she talked to about the problem?
What have we done to the Earth?
When has she learned from her mistake?
Where have you been all my life?
How have I grown professionally?
How long have they been together?
Why has it taken so long?
Wh- Word (subject) Will Be Subject Verb + ing
Who will be hosting the party?
What will be happening when we arrive?
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Past Perfect Progressive – Verb Form

This post will show you how to form the Past Perfect Progressive. To see how to use the Past Perfect Progressive, click here.

Affirmative Statements

Subject + Had Been Verb + ing
I’d   been working all day.
You’d   been waiting for a long time.
She’d/He’d/It’d   been snowing all night.
We’d   been eating dinner.
They’d/You’d (plural)   been investing a lot of money.

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Negative Statements

Subject Had Not (hadn’t) Been Verb + ing
I hadn’t been going to school for some time.
You hadn’t been writing your essay.
She/He/It hadn’t been dating her for very long.
We hadn’t been traveling for a while.
They/You (plural) hadn’t been sleeping well.

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Yes/No Questions

Had Subject Been Verb + ing
Had you been living in Dubai
Had it been raining all morning?
Had they been driving all night?
     

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Short Answers

Yes Subject Had No Subject Had + Not (hadn’t)
Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t.
Yes, he had. No, he hadn’t.
Yes, they had. No, they hadn’t.
   

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Information Questions

Wh- Word Had Subject Been Verb + ing
Who had you been talking to?
What had she been doing all morning?
When had he been working?
Where had it been snowing?
How had they been traveling?
Why had they been going to Hong Kong?
Who (subject) had been eating my food?
What (subject) had been happening before I arrived?

Past Perfect – Meaning and Use

past_perfect GraphicThis post will show you how to use the Past Perfect. To see how to form the Past Perfect, click here.

The Past Perfect expresses the relationship in time between two past events. It shows that one action or state happened before another action or state in the past. The Past Perfect expresses the first event and the Past Simple often expresses the second, or later, event.

  • I had just completed the exam. (Past perfect, 1st event)
  • I felt so relieved. (Past Simple, 2nd event)

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The past time can be recent or distant.

  • Michael called me this morning, but I wasn’t there; I had already left.  (Recent time)
  • Michael wrote me last year, but I never got the letter; I had moved away.

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The Past Perfect is often used in sentences containing past time clauses. The Past Perfect is used to indicate the first event, and the Past Simple is used for the second event. Before, by the time, when, until, and after introduce the time clause.

Past Perfect (1st Event)                                    Past Simple (2nd Event)

The thief had escaped                                    before I called the police.

We had calmed down                                    by the time the police came.

He had been upstairs                                    when we came home.

We hadn’t noticed                                                until we heard the footsteps.

After I had called the police,                         we realized the thief was gone.

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In sentences with before, after, by the time, and until, the Past Perfect is sometimes replaced by the Past Simple with no difference in meaning.

  • I had gone inside before I took off my coat. = I went inside before I took off my coat.
  • After I had gone inside, I took off my coat. = After I went inside, I took off my coat.

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The Past Perfect is often used with the same adverbs and prepositions as the Present Perfect: already, yet, still, ever, never, for, since, and just.

  •  By  lunch time, we had  already discussed the new budget and written a new report.
  • I had lived in Texas for 12 years before I moved to California.
  • Had she ever eaten a hot dog before she came to the United States? No, she’d never had one!!

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By + a time can be used with the Past Perfect to express the later time in the sentence.

  • We had finished by then.
  • By noon, we had hiked two miles.

Past Progressive – Verb Meaning and Use

Past Cont GraphicThis post will show you how to use the Past Progressive (also called the Past Continuous). To see how to form the Past Progressive, click here.

We use the Past Progressive to talk about activities that were in progress (happening) at a specific time in the past. This may be an exact moment in the past or a longer period of time.

  • It wasn’t raining at lunch time, it was snowing.
  • You were acting weird last night.
  • I was studying in Brasilia in 2010.

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The Past Progressive expresses an ongoing past activity that may or may not be completed.

  • At 7:00 Rodrigo was making dinner in the kitchen. (He was in the middle of making dinner and we don’t know if he finished.)
  • The children were building a snowman while it was snowing. (They were in the middle of building a snowman and we don’t know if they finished.)

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Simultaneous Events

Sentences with two past time clauses describe the order in which two past events happened. When the verbs in both the time clause and the main clause are in the Past Progressive, the events were simultaneous (happening at the same time).

  • When you were studying, I was working.
  • They were playing hockey while we were shopping.

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Interrupted Events

When one verb is in the Past Simple and the other in the Past Progressive, it shows that one event interrupted the other. The event in the Past Progressive started first and was interrupted by the Past Simple event. When or while begins the time clause, which uses the Past Progressive.

  • While we were eating dinner, the phone rang.
  • She ran into Adam when she was walking to school.

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Background Information

The Past Progressive often appears at the beginning of a narrative to describe background activities. It can express several background activities happening at the same time as the main event. The main even is in the Past Simple.

  • It was raining hard outside and my roommate was taking a shower. At exactly 7:10, there was a huge clap of thunder. I jumped up as the house shook violently.
  • When we arrived at the stadium, the home team was winning,  all the fans were cheering, and my heart was racing with excitement.

 

 

 

Past Progressive – Verb Form

This post will show you how to form the Past Progressive (also called the Past Continuous). To see how to use the Past Progressive, click here.

Affirmative Statements

Subject Was/Were Base Verb + ing
I was working that night.
You were living in Sao Paulo
He/She/It was watching TV.
We were walking to the store.
They/You (plural) were playing tenis.
   

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Negative Statements

Subject Was/Were + Not (wasn’t/weren’t) Base Verb = ing
I wasn’t eating dinner.
You weren’t waiting for us.
She/He/It wasn’t driving very fast.
We weren’t thinking about the consequences.
They/You (plural) weren’t sleeping at 8:00 am.

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Yes/No Questions

Was/Were Subject Base Verb + ing
Were you living in Sidney?
Was he cooking dinner?
Were they writing their essay?
   

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Short Answers

Yes Subject Was No Subject Was/were + Not (wasn’t/weren’t)
Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t.
Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t.
Yes, they were. No, they weren’t.
   

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Information Questions

Wh- Word Was/Were Subject Base Verb + ing
Who were you talking to?
What was she watching?
When was he working there?
Where was it snowing?
How were they saving money?
Why were they changing jobs?
Who (subject) was leaving?
What (subject) was happening?