Future Perfect – Verb Form

This post will show you how to form the Future Perfect. To see how to use the Future Perfect, click here.

 

Affirmative Statements

Subject Will/Be Going To Have Already Past Participle Future Time Expression
I will/am going to have had two children by the time I am 30.
You will/are going to have already made dinner when I get home.
She/He/It will/is going to have seen most of Asia in five years’ time.
We will/are going to have already finished our homework by dinner time.
They/You (plural) will/are going to have saved enough money for a new car by next June.

 

 

Negative Statements

We don’t usually contract will not to won’t, you should use the full form with this verb tense.

Future Time Expression Subject Still Will Not/Be Not Going To Have Past Participle
By the time I am 30, I   will not/am not going to have had any children.
When I get home, you   will not/are not going to have made dinner.
In five years’ time she/he/it still will not/is not going to have seen most of Asia
By dinner time, we still will not/are not going to have finished our homework.
By next June, they/you (plural) will not/are not going to have saved enough money for a new car.
     

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Information Questions

Wh- word Will Subject Have Past Participle Future Time Expression
What will I have accomplished in three years’ time?
Who will you have worked with?
Where will she/he/it have traveled by next year?
When will we have talked?
How will we have done

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Yes/No Questions

Will Subject Have Past Participle Future Time Expression
Will I have done my homework by the time he comes?
Will you have perfected your English by the time you return from Vancouver?
Will she/he/it have bought a new house in five years’ time?
Will we have seen everything before we leave?

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Short Answers

Yes Subject Will Have No Subject Will Not (Won’t) Have
Yes, I will have. No, I won’t have.
Yes, you will have. No, you won’t have.
Yes, she/he/it will have. No, he won’t have.
Yes, we will have. No, we won’t have.
Yes, they will have. No, they won’t have.

 

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Future Perfect – Meaning and Use

future_perfect GraphicThis post will show you how to use the Future Perfect. To see how to form the Future Perfect, click here.

We use Will or Be Going To to talk about an event that will be completed some time in the future.

A future time expression is usually stated or implied, often with by, and it can go at the beginning or end of the sentence with no difference in meaning.

 

The Future Perfect with will:

  • I will have studied hard for the test.
  • He’s going to have done the dishes by the time we finish eating.
  • Why won’t she have finished the project by next week?
  • In ten years, robots will have become more common.
  • After a few years in Europe, she will have tried many different foods.
  • Will he have learned enough Italian before he moves to Italy?

 

The Future Perfect with be going to:

  • I am going to have studied hard for the test.
  • By the time we finish eating, he’s going to have done the dishes.
  • Why will she have gotten paid earlier than usual?
  • By next March, it isn’t going to have warmed up
  • Is he going to have bought a new car by the time he graduates?
  • She is going to have had that book past its due date if she doesn’t return it tomorrow.

Past Perfect – Verb Form

This post will show you how to form the Past Perfect. To see how to use the Past Perfect, click here.

Affirmative Statements

Subject Had Past Participle
I had gone to school.
You had lived in Alaska.
He/She/It had watched TV.
We had walked to the store.
They/You (plural) had played tennis.
   

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Negative Statements

Subject Had + Not (hadn’t) Past participle
I hadn’t eaten dinner.
You hadn’t waited for us.
She/He/It hadn’t driven very fast.
We hadn’t thought about the consequences.
They/You (plural) hadn’t slept by 8:00 am.

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Yes/No Questions

Had Subject Past Participle
Had you been to Frankfurt before?
Had he cooked dinner?
Had they written their essay?
   

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Short Answers

Yes Subject Had No Subject Had + Not (hadn’t)
Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t.
Yes, he had. No, he hadn’t.
Yes, they had. No, they hadn’t.
   

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Information Questions

Wh- Word Had Subject Past Participle
Who had you voted for?
What had she arranged?
When had he quit smoking?
Where had it gone?
How had they broken the dishes?
Why had they changed jobs?
Who (subject) had left?
What (subject) had happened?

Past Perfect – Meaning and Use

past_perfect GraphicThis post will show you how to use the Past Perfect. To see how to form the Past Perfect, click here.

The Past Perfect expresses the relationship in time between two past events. It shows that one action or state happened before another action or state in the past. The Past Perfect expresses the first event and the Past Simple often expresses the second, or later, event.

  • I had just completed the exam. (Past perfect, 1st event)
  • I felt so relieved. (Past Simple, 2nd event)

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The past time can be recent or distant.

  • Michael called me this morning, but I wasn’t there; I had already left.  (Recent time)
  • Michael wrote me last year, but I never got the letter; I had moved away.

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The Past Perfect is often used in sentences containing past time clauses. The Past Perfect is used to indicate the first event, and the Past Simple is used for the second event. Before, by the time, when, until, and after introduce the time clause.

Past Perfect (1st Event)                                    Past Simple (2nd Event)

The thief had escaped                                    before I called the police.

We had calmed down                                    by the time the police came.

He had been upstairs                                    when we came home.

We hadn’t noticed                                                until we heard the footsteps.

After I had called the police,                         we realized the thief was gone.

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In sentences with before, after, by the time, and until, the Past Perfect is sometimes replaced by the Past Simple with no difference in meaning.

  • I had gone inside before I took off my coat. = I went inside before I took off my coat.
  • After I had gone inside, I took off my coat. = After I went inside, I took off my coat.

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The Past Perfect is often used with the same adverbs and prepositions as the Present Perfect: already, yet, still, ever, never, for, since, and just.

  •  By  lunch time, we had  already discussed the new budget and written a new report.
  • I had lived in Texas for 12 years before I moved to California.
  • Had she ever eaten a hot dog before she came to the United States? No, she’d never had one!!

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By + a time can be used with the Past Perfect to express the later time in the sentence.

  • We had finished by then.
  • By noon, we had hiked two miles.

Present Perfect Progressive – Verb Meaning and Use

present-perfect-cont GraphcThis post will show you how to use the Present Perfect Progressive. To see how to form the Present Perfect Progressive, click here.

The Present Perfect Progressive, also called the Present Perfect Continuous, is used with continuing activities. We often use since and for with this verb tense.

  • My English has been improving lately.
  • have been living in Vancouver for six months.
  • They have been studying English since January.
  • It has been raining since Monday.
  • She has not (hasn’tbeen exercising since she hurt her back.
  • How long have you been going to the new Conversation Club for?
  • Who have you been talking to for hours?

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The Present Perfect Progressive is also used for activities that were in progress, but have just ended.

  • It’s finally done! I’ve been writing this essay all month!
  • He has been working all day so he is very tired.
  • You have been sleeping for ten hours!

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We also use the Present Perfect Progressive to make excuses with an apology.

  • I’m sorry I haven’t called you, I haven’t been feeling well lately.
  • I’m sorry I didn’t go grocery shopping, I have been working too much these days.

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Some common verbs can be used in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Progressive with no difference in meaning. Some of these verbs are live, teach, wear, work, study, stay, and feel.

  • Mr. Rodriguez has lived here since 2010.
  • Mr. Rodriguez has been living here for three years.
  • He has taught Spanish for a long time.
  • He has been teaching Spanish for a long time.
  • He has worn the same jacket for years.
  • He has been wearing the same jacket for years.

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Sometimes, using the Progressive tense can show a more intense feeling.

  • I’ve waited for an hour.
  • I’ve been waiting for an hour. (I am very annoyed)
  •  I’ve thought about this for days.
  • I’ve been thinking about this for days. (I can’t stop thinking about it)

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While the Present Perfect can express a completed activity that may or may not have been recent, the Present Perfect Progressive shows that an activity is continuing up to the present time, or was very recently completed.

  • I’ve read a book about psychology. (I finished it at some indefinite time in the past)
  • I’ve been reading a book about psychology. (I’m not finished. Or I’ve just finished it)

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Usually, we do not use the Present Perfect Continuous when we say how many times an activity has been repeated.

✔ I’ve watered the garden three times.

✘ I’ve been watering the garden three times.

Present Perfect – Verb Forms

present_perfect GraphicThis post will show you how to form the Present Perfect. To see how to use the Present Perfect, click here.

The Present Perfect is formed with two words; the auxiliary “have or has”, and a verb in its “past participle” form.

The Past Participle of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the base verb and it looks just like the Past Simple form of that verb. Work, worked, worked – Base Verb, Past Simple, and Past Participle.  The Past Participle of irregular verbs must be memorized.

Occasionally, a few verbs change their spelling in the Past Participle form, for example study becomes studied.

Affirmative Statements

Subject Have/Has Past Participle
I have (I’ve) travelled to France.
You have (you’ve) travelled around Europe.
He/she/it has (he’s/she’s/it’s) travelled through Russia.
We have (we’ve) travelled to Australia.
They/you (plural) have travelled to all seven continents.

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Negative Statements

Subject Have/Has Not Past Participle
I have not (haven’t) forgotten his name.
You have not (haven’t) lost your mind.
He/she/it has not (hasn’t) been difficult.
We have not (haven’t) done much research.
They/you (plural) have not (haven’t) answered the questions.

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Information Questions

Wh- Word Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Who has she talked to about the problem?
What have we done to the Earth?
When has she learned from a mistake?
Where have you been all my life?
How have I grown professionally?
How long have they been together?
Why has it taken so long?

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Wh- Word + Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Who’s eaten lunch?
What’s been found on Mars?

Yes/No Questions

Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Have I finished yet?
Have you traveled to Argentina?
Has he/she/it stopped raining?
Have we improved our English?
Have they/you (plural) seen that movie?

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Short Answers

Yes Subject + Be + Not
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he/she/it is.
Yes, we are.
Yes, they/you (plural) are.
No Subject + Be + Not
No, I’m not.
No, you’re not.
No, he/she/it isn’t.
No, we aren’t.
No, they/you (plural) aren’t.

We do not use contraction with short affirmative answers.

✔ Yes, I am.

✘ Yes, I’m

✔ Yes, you are.

✘ Yes, you’re.

Adjectives: Participle Modifiers

Many adjectives of emotion and feeling are formed with the -ed or -ing ending, called Participle Modifiers, which designate the source or the receiver of the emotion or feeling.

We use a present participle, ending in -ing, to modify a noun that is the source (or cause) of the feeling or emotion. Present participles come from active verbs and have an active meaning.

We use a past participle, ending in -ed, to modify a noun that is the receiver of the feeling or emotion.  Past participles come from passive verbs and have a passive meaning.
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The movie is entertaining.  I am entertained.
Her explanation is confusing.  I am confused.
Work today was very exhausting.  I am very exhausted.
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Positive

verb

-ed

-ing

noun

You ____ me!

I’m _____!

How _____!

What _____!

amaze

amazed

amazing

amazement

amuse

amused

amusing

amusement

astound

astounded

astounding

astonishment

captivate

captivated

captivating

captivation

challenge

challenged

challenging

a challenge

charm

charmed

charming

charm

comfort

comforted

comforting

comfort

concern

concerned

concerning

concern

convince

convinced

convincing

conviction

encourage

encouraged

encouraging

encouragement

energize

energized

energizing

energy

entertain

entertained

entertaining

entertainment

excite

excited

exciting

excitement

exhaust

exhausted

exhausting

exhaustion

fascinate

fascinated

fascinating

fascination

flatter

flattered

flattering

flattery

interest

interested

interesting

interest

intrigue

intrigued

intriguing

intrigue

move

moved

moving

please

pleased

pleasing (pleasant)

pleasure

relax

relaxed

relaxing

relaxation

relieve

relieved

relieving

a relief

satisfy

satisfied

satisfying

satisfaction

soothe

soothed

soothing

surprise

surprised

surprising

a surprise

tempt

tempted

tempting

temptation

touch

touched

touching

thrill

thrilled

thrilling

a thrill

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Negative

verb

-ed

-ing

noun

You ____ me!

I’m _____!

How _____!

What _____!

aggravate

aggravated

aggravating

aggravation

alarm

alarmed

alarming

alarm

annoy

annoyed

annoying

annoyance

bore

bored

boring

boredom

confuse

confused

confusing

confusion

depress

depressed

depressing

depression

devastate

devastated

devastating

devastation

disappoint

disappointed

disappointing

disappointment

discourage

discouraged

discouraging

discouragement

disgust

disgusted

disgusting

disgust

displease

displeased

displeasing

displeasure

distress

distressed

distressing

distress

disturb

disturbed

disturbing

disturbance

embarrass

embarrassed

embarrassing

embarrassment

exasperate

exasperated

exasperating

exasperation

fatigue

fatigued

fatiguing

fatigue

frighten

frightened

frightening

fright

frustrate

frustrated

frustrating

frustration

horrify

horrified

horrifying

horror

insult

insulted

insulting

an insult

irritate

irritated

irritating

irritation

mortify

mortified

mortifying

mortification

overwhelm

overwhelmed

overwhelming

overwhelmingness

puzzle

puzzled

puzzling

puzzlement

shock

shocked

shocking

a shock

sicken

sickened

sickening

sickness

terrify

terrified

terrifying

terror

threaten

threatened

threatening

a threat

tire

tired

tiring

tiredness

trouble

troubled

troubling

trouble

unsettle

unsettled

unsettling

unsettledness

upset

upset

upsetting

Third Conditional: No Possibility

The Third Conditional talks about situations the past that did not happen, and their hypothetical results. Because the situation did not happen, there is no possible result.

We can use the Third Conditional for dreams, but with absolutely no chance of the dream coming true.  For example: Yesterday you bought a lottery ticket but you didn’t win. But in your imagination you would say “If I had won the lottery, I would have bought an island.”

We can also use this condition for criticism or regret.  For example: “If you had done your job properly, we wouldn’t be in this mess now.” or “If I had studied harder, I could have passed the exam.”

We use the Past Perfect to talk about the past condition. We use Would Have or Could Have or Might Have + Past Participle to talk about the imaginary result.

IF Condition Result
 If you had called me,
I could have come.
If I hadn’t helped you,  you might have failed.
If we had paid the rent, we wouldn’t have been evicted.
If she had told me you were coming, I would have come too.
If you had driven more carefully, you wouldn’t have had an accident.
If it had rained yesterday what would you have done?
Result IF Condition
I could have told him  if I had seen him.
They might have accepted your ideas if you had explained them better.
I would have finished hours ago if I hadn’t wasted so much time.
She would have gone if she had had time.
I would have done the same thing if I had been there.
What would you have said if he had asked you?

Sometimes the “if” clause is implied. For example: I would have come. (but you didn’t ask me)

“I had” and “I would” are both contracted as “I’d”, so watch out for that.

In some varieties of English, the condition clause can use “would have” or “would’ve” but this is usually considered non-standard and is not usually used in more formal writing. For example: “If you would have told me, I would have done something” should probably read “If you had told me, I would have done something”.