Present Perfect – Verb Forms

present_perfect GraphicThis post will show you how to form the Present Perfect. To see how to use the Present Perfect, click here.

The Present Perfect is formed with two words; the auxiliary “have or has”, and a verb in its “past participle” form.

The Past Participle of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the base verb and it looks just like the Past Simple form of that verb. Work, worked, worked – Base Verb, Past Simple, and Past Participle.  The Past Participle of irregular verbs must be memorized.

Occasionally, a few verbs change their spelling in the Past Participle form, for example study becomes studied.

Affirmative Statements

Subject Have/Has Past Participle
I have (I’ve) travelled to France.
You have (you’ve) travelled around Europe.
He/she/it has (he’s/she’s/it’s) travelled through Russia.
We have (we’ve) travelled to Australia.
They/you (plural) have travelled to all seven continents.

.

Negative Statements

Subject Have/Has Not Past Participle
I have not (haven’t) forgotten his name.
You have not (haven’t) lost your mind.
He/she/it has not (hasn’t) been difficult.
We have not (haven’t) done much research.
They/you (plural) have not (haven’t) answered the questions.

.

Information Questions

Wh- Word Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Who has she talked to about the problem?
What have we done to the Earth?
When has she learned from a mistake?
Where have you been all my life?
How have I grown professionally?
How long have they been together?
Why has it taken so long?

.

Wh- Word + Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Who’s eaten lunch?
What’s been found on Mars?

Yes/No Questions

Have/Has Subject Past Participle
Have I finished yet?
Have you traveled to Argentina?
Has he/she/it stopped raining?
Have we improved our English?
Have they/you (plural) seen that movie?

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Short Answers

Yes Subject + Be + Not
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he/she/it is.
Yes, we are.
Yes, they/you (plural) are.
No Subject + Be + Not
No, I’m not.
No, you’re not.
No, he/she/it isn’t.
No, we aren’t.
No, they/you (plural) aren’t.

We do not use contraction with short affirmative answers.

✔ Yes, I am.

✘ Yes, I’m

✔ Yes, you are.

✘ Yes, you’re.

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